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Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) 250/500/750/1000 mg

Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is an antibiotic that belongs to a class of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections by stopping the growth of bacteria.

What Is Cipro?

Cipro is commonly prescribed for such infections as urinary tract infections (UTIs), respiratory tract infections (such as bronchitis or pneumonia), skin infections, bone and joint infections, gastrointestinal infections (such as infectious diarrhea), certain types of sexually transmitted infections.

Cipro works by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, enzymes critical for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. This inhibition leads to the death of the bacteria.


It is important to take Cipro exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making infections harder to treat in the future.

NDC codes for ciprofloxacin produced by Pfeizer are 0069-3241-15, 0069-3241-22, 0069-3342-15, 0069-3342-22, 0069-4395-19, 0069-4396-27.

NDC Codes for ciprofloxacin produced by Par Pharmaceutical, Inc are 10370-107-05, 10370-107-10, 10370-107-50, 10370-108-05, 10370-108-10.

Clinical Pharmacology

Ciprofloxacin is well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration, with a bioavailability of approximately 70-80%. Peak plasma concentrations are typically achieved 1-2 hours after oral dosing.

The medication has a large volume of distribution, indicating extensive distribution into tissues and body fluids. It penetrates well into tissues such as the lungs, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, and reproductive organs. It also crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and is distributed into breast milk. It is metabolized in the liver to form several metabolites, which have less antibacterial activity than the parent drug.

The primary route of elimination is renal, with about 40-50% of an oral dose excreted unchanged in the urine. The elimination half-life of ciprofloxacin is approximately 4-6 hours in patients with normal renal function. It is also excreted in bile and feces.

Ciprofloxacin has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It is particularly effective against Gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae. It has limited activity against anaerobic bacteria.

Ciprofloxacin exhibits concentration-dependent killing, meaning that its bactericidal activity increases with higher drug concentrations. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin varies depending on the bacterial species.

Cipro Forms and Ingredients

Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is available in various formulations, including tablets, extended-release tablets, oral suspension, and intravenous solutions. The ingredients vary slightly depending on the formulation. Below you will find the typical ingredients in each form of Cipro.

Cipro Tablets

Active ingredient is Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

Inactive ingredients are microcrystalline cellulose, corn starch, silicon dioxide, crospovidone, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, water.

Ciplox 250mg

Cipro XR (Extended-Release) Tablets

Active ingredient is Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

Inactive ingredients are microcrystalline cellulose, sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, and propylene glycol.

Cipro Oral Suspension

Active ingredient is Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

Inactive ingredients are microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, citric acid, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polysorbate 20, simethicone emulsion, sodium benzoate, sorbic acid, sucrose, water, and artificial flavoring (bubble gum flavor).

Cipro oral suspension

Cipro Intravenous Solution

Active ingredient is Ciprofloxacin lactate.

Inactive ingredients are lactic acid, sodium chloride, and water for injection.

The active ingredient, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride or ciprofloxacin lactate, provides the therapeutic effect, while the inactive ingredients serve various roles such as fillers, binders, stabilizers, preservatives, and flavoring agents.

What Are the Dosage of Cipro?

The dosage of Cipro (ciprofloxacin) varies depending on the type and severity of the infection, the patient’s age, kidney function, and other individual factors. Here is the dosage information for Cipro presented in a table:




Adult Dosage

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Mild to Moderate: 250-500 mg every 12 hours

7-14 days


Severe or Complicated: 500-750 mg every 12 hours

7-14 days

Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in Females

250 mg every 12 hours

3 days

Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

500 mg every 12 hours

28 days

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Mild to Moderate: 500 mg every 12 hours

7-14 days


Severe or Complicated: 750 mg every 12 hours

7-14 days

Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Mild to Moderate: 500 mg every 12 hours

7-14 days


Severe or Complicated: 750 mg every 12 hours

7-14 days

Bone and Joint Infections

Mild to Moderate: 500 mg every 12 hours

≥4-6 weeks


Severe: 750 mg every 12 hours

≥4-6 weeks

Infectious Diarrhea

500 mg every 12 hours

5-7 days

Typhoid Fever

500 mg every 12 hours

10 days

Neutropenic Patients with Fever

500 mg every 12 hours (with other antibiotics)

Duration varies

Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

500 mg every 12 hours

60 days

Pediatric Dosage

Complicated UTIs and Pyelonephritis

10-20 mg/kg every 12 hours (max: 750 mg per dose)

10-21 days

Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

15 mg/kg every 12 hours (max: 500 mg per dose)

60 days

Dosage Adjustments

Renal Impairment (CrCl 30-50 mL/min)

Usual dose every 12 hours

Duration varies

Renal Impairment (CrCl 5-29 mL/min)

250-500 mg every 18 hours

Duration varies

Hemodialysis/Peritoneal Dialysis

250-500 mg every 24 hours after dialysis

Duration varies

Administration Guidelines

Oral Tablets

With or without food; avoid dairy products alone

Maintain adequate hydration

Extended-Release Tablets (Cipro XR)

Once daily; do not split, crush, or chew

Follow specific dosing schedule

Oral Suspension

Shake well; do not use through feeding tubes

Follow specific dosing schedule

Intravenous (IV) Infusion

200 mg over 60 minutes; 400 mg over 60-90 minutes

Follow specific dosing schedule

Complete the full course of therapy even if symptoms improve. Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight or UV light. Report any signs of tendon pain, swelling, or inflammation. Monitor for signs of serious side effects, including allergic reactions, central nervous system effects, and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

Consult a healthcare provider for specific dosage recommendations tailored to individual health needs and conditions.

Important Safety Information

Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is an effective antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections, but it comes with important safety considerations.

  • Ciprofloxacin is associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture, which can occur during or after treatment. Risk is higher in patients over 60 years, those taking corticosteroids, and those with kidney, heart, or lung transplants.
  • Can cause permanent peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). Symptoms include pain, burning, tingling, numbness, or weakness. Discontinue immediately if symptoms occur.
  • Can cause CNS effects including seizures, increased intracranial pressure, tremors, restlessness, anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, and depression. Use with caution in patients with a history of seizures or other CNS disorders.
  • May exacerbate muscle weakness in people with myasthenia gravis. Avoid use in these patients.
  • Serious and sometimes fatal allergic reactions can occur after the first dose. Discontinue immediately if a rash, hives, or other signs of an allergic reaction occur.
  • Can cause moderate to severe sunburn-like reactions. Avoid excessive sunlight and UV light exposure, and use sunscreen and protective clothing.
  • Can prolong the QT interval on an ECG, which may lead to an increased risk of serious heart rhythm disturbances (e.g., torsades de pointes). Use with caution in patients with risk factors such as certain heart conditions or concurrent use of drugs that prolong the QT interval.
  • Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea can occur during or after treatment. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. Discontinue if significant diarrhea occurs and manage accordingly.
  • Cases of severe liver injury have been reported. Discontinue if symptoms of liver disease (e.g., jaundice, dark urine, severe fatigue) occur.
  • Can cause disturbances in blood sugar levels, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Diabetic patients should monitor blood glucose levels closely.
  • Can cause muscle weakness in people with or without myasthenia gravis. Monitor patients for signs of muscle weakness.
  • Contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, other quinolones, or any component of the formulation.

Special Precautions

Pregnancy: Use only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers: Ciprofloxacin is excreted in human milk. Consider discontinuing nursing or the drug, considering the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in patients under 18 years old are limited to certain infections (e.g., complicated urinary tract infections and post-exposure inhalational anthrax).


You need a prescription to buy Cipro (ciprofloxacin). It is a prescription-only medication in most countries, including the United States, due to the potential for serious side effects, the need for proper diagnosis and medical supervision, and the importance of appropriate use to prevent antibiotic resistance.

If you believe you need Cipro, you should consult a healthcare provider who can evaluate your symptoms and determine whether this antibiotic is appropriate for your condition. The healthcare provider can then provide a prescription if it is deemed necessary.

Contraindications to Cipro

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) has several contraindications where its use is not recommended.

Patients with a history of hypersensitivity or allergic reactions to ciprofloxacin, other fluoroquinolones, or any of the components of the formulation.

Co-administration with tizanidine (Zanaflex) is contraindicated due to the risk of significant hypotension and sedation.

Patients with myasthenia gravis should avoid ciprofloxacin due to the risk of exacerbating muscle weakness.

Patients with a history of tendon disorders related to quinolone use should avoid ciprofloxacin.

Use with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders (e.g., epilepsy, severe cerebral arteriosclerosis) due to the risk of seizures and other CNS effects.

Use with caution in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, uncorrected electrolyte disorders (e.g., hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia), or those taking other medications that prolong the QT interval.

Side Effects

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) can cause a range of side effects, some of which can be serious.

Common Side Effects

  1. Gastrointestinal Issues: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
  2. Central Nervous System Effects: dizziness, headache, drowsiness.
  3. Skin Reactions: rash, itching.

Serious Side Effects

  1. Increased risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture, especially in the Achilles tendon. This can occur during treatment or even months after treatment has stopped.
  2. Peripheral Neuropathy: severe nerve pain, tingling, numbness, or weakness, which can be permanent.
  3. Central Nervous System Effects: seizures, tremors, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, depression, anxiety.
  4. Serious Skin Reactions: stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis.
  5. Hypersensitivity Reactions: severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening. Symptoms include rash, itching, swelling, severe dizziness, and difficulty breathing.
  6. Severe, persistent diarrhea that can lead to serious colon conditions.
  7. Severe liver damage, which may present as jaundice, dark urine, severe fatigue, and abdominal pain.
  8. QT interval prolongation, which can lead to serious heart rhythm disturbances (e.g., torsades de pointes).
  9. Musculoskeletal Issues: joint pain, muscle pain.
  10. Psychiatric Effects: psychosis, suicidal thoughts or actions.

Always report any new or worsening symptoms to a healthcare provider promptly.

Interactions of Cipro With Other Medicines

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) can interact with various other medications, which may alter its effects or increase the risk of serious side effects.

  1. Tizanidine (Zanaflex): Co-administration is contraindicated due to the risk of significant hypotension and sedation.
  2. Theophylline: Ciprofloxacin can increase the plasma concentration of theophylline, leading to potential theophylline toxicity (e.g., seizures, arrhythmias). Monitor theophylline levels closely.
  3. Warfarin (Coumadin): Ciprofloxacin may enhance the anticoagulant effects of warfarin, increasing the risk of bleeding. Monitor INR/PT levels frequently.
  4. Antacids, Sucralfate, and Mineral Supplements: These can interfere with the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Take ciprofloxacin at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after these products.
  5. Antiarrhythmics and Other QT-Prolonging Drugs: Ciprofloxacin can prolong the QT interval, increasing the risk of serious heart rhythm disturbances. Use with caution in patients taking other QT-prolonging drugs (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol).
  6. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Concurrent use may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and seizures.
  7. Cyclosporine: Co-administration can lead to increased serum levels of cyclosporine and increased risk of nephrotoxicity. Monitor renal function closely.
  8. Phenytoin (Dilantin): Ciprofloxacin can alter phenytoin levels, leading to either an increase or decrease in its effect. Monitor phenytoin levels closely.
  9. Methotrexate: Ciprofloxacin can inhibit the renal tubular transport of methotrexate, potentially increasing the risk of methotrexate toxicity.
  10. Glyburide: Co-administration can increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Monitor blood glucose levels closely.

Ciprofloxacin can cause both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Diabetic patients should monitor their blood glucose levels closely. Concurrent use can increase the risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture. Ciprofloxacin can increase caffeine levels and prolong its effects, leading to increased risk of CNS stimulation (e.g., nervousness, insomnia).

Overdose of Cipro

An overdose of Cipro (ciprofloxacin) can be serious and requires immediate medical attention.

Management of ciprofloxacin overdose involves supportive care and symptomatic treatment. Seek emergency medical help or contact a poison control center immediately. In the case of a recent overdose, gastric lavage (stomach pumping) may be considered to remove unabsorbed drug from the stomach. Administer activated charcoal to decrease drug absorption if the overdose is identified within an hour of ingestion. Ensure adequate hydration to prevent crystalluria and protect kidney function. Provide appropriate symptomatic treatment for nausea, vomiting, seizures, and other symptoms. Monitor heart function and treat any cardiac arrhythmias. Monitor renal function and manage any signs of renal impairment.

To prevent an overdose, take ciprofloxacin exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider. Do not take more than the recommended dose.Do not self-medicate or adjust the dosage without consulting a healthcare professional.


Proper storage of Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is essential to ensure its effectiveness and safety.

Store at room temperature, between 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Brief storage at temperatures between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) is acceptable.

Keep the medication in its original container to protect it from light. Store in a dry place, away from moisture and humidity.

Keep out of reach of children and pets to prevent accidental ingestion.

Benefits of Using Cipro



Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic

Effective against a wide range of Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria, making it useful for treating various infections.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Highly effective in treating uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, including acute pyelonephritis.

Respiratory Infections

Used to treat lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis and pneumonia.

Gastrointestinal Infections

Effective in treating infectious diarrhea caused by pathogens such as E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella.

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Useful in managing skin and soft tissue infections, including cellulitis and wound infections.

Bone and Joint Infections

Can be used to treat bone and joint infections, including osteomyelitis.


Approved for the treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax.


Effective in treating bacterial prostatitis, both acute and chronic.

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Used for treating certain sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea.

Eye Infections

Ophthalmic formulations are used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers.

Ear Infections

Otic formulations are effective for treating outer ear infections (otitis externa).

Post-Surgical Infections

Can be prescribed to prevent and treat infections following certain surgical procedures.

Convenient Dosing

Available in multiple forms (tablets, extended-release tablets, oral suspension, IV solution, eye/ear drops), allowing flexibility in dosing and administration.

Rapid Onset of Action

Quickly reaches effective concentrations in the body, providing rapid relief from symptoms of infection.

Good Tissue Penetration

Penetrates well into various tissues, making it effective for infections in different parts of the body.

Prophylactic Use

Can be used prophylactically in specific situations, such as preventing infections in neutropenic patients or travelers’ diarrhea.

Generic and Brand Names of Cipro

Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin

Brand Names:

  1. Cipro
  2. Cipro XR (Extended-Release Tablets)
  3. Ciloxan (Ophthalmic Solution and Ointment)
  4. Cetraxal (Otic Solution)
  5. Proquin XR (Extended-Release Tablets)
  6. Ciprodex (Otic Suspension, Ciprofloxacin and Dexamethasone)
  7. Cipro HC (Otic Suspension, Ciprofloxacin and Hydrocortisone)

These brand names may vary by country and manufacturer.

Cipro Brand Names in Different Countries


Brand Name(s)

United States

Cipro, Cipro XR, Ciloxan, Cetraxal, Proquin XR, Ciprodex, Cipro HC


Cipro, Ciloxan, Cetraxal

United Kingdom

Ciproxin, Ciloxan


Cifran, Ciprobid, Ciplox, Ciplox-TZ, Baycip


Ciproxin, Ciloxan


Ciprobay, Ciloxan


Ciflox, Oflocet


Ciprofloxacino, Baycip


Ciproxin, Ciprofloxacina


Ciproxan, Cipro, Ciplox


Cipro, Quinoflox, Proflox


Ciprofloxacino, Ciproxin, Ciprol

South Africa

Cifloc, Ciprobay, Ciprol


Ciprinol, Ciprobay


Huaqingsha, Ciprobay

Please note that the availability and specific brand names of Cipro may change over time, and there may be additional brand names in each country. It is always recommended to check with local pharmacies or healthcare professionals for the most up-to-date information in 2024 on Cipro medicine and its brand names in your specific country.

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