Chlamydia Pneumoniae

Chlamydia pneumoniae an obligate intracellular bacteria, has been established as an important cause of adult respiratory disease including pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis and pharyngitis. There is no animal reservoir. Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Estimated incidence of 100 to 200 cases of pneumonia/100,000/ year.


A chronic non-malignant lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos, a hazardous dust found in a variety of work places. This disease persists in spite of substantial knowledge about its cause, and effective means of prevention. The disease typically occurs 10-15 years after initial exposure. Asbestosis is a fibrotic interstitial lung disease caused by a cascade of responses to inhaled asbestos fibers.

Adenovirus infections

Usually self-limited febrile illnesses characterized by inflammation of conjunctivae and the respiratory tract. Adenovirus infections occur in epidemic and endemic situations. Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Very common infection, estimated at 2-5% of all respiratory infections. More common in infants and children.

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Emerging Therapies

TABLE: Emerging Therapies in Development for Community-Acquired Pneumonia, 2004 summarizes emerging antibacterial agents in late-stage development and their expected sales potential in the community-acquired pneumonia market.

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Cefpodoxime proxetil is an esterified pro-drug of cefpodoxime created for oral formulation. It is stable in the presence of most β-lactamase enzymes, effectively extending its spectrum of activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to penicillins and other cephalosporins.

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants.

Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and other community-acquired pneumonia pathogens has progressed at an alarming rate. Approximately one-third of pneumococci exhibit reduced susceptibility to penicillin (i.e., higher MICs) that also confers reduced susceptibility to other agents in the β-lactam class of antibiotics. Macrolide resistance levels range between 23% and 30% in the United States, and much higher levels are observed in some other markets. N.


The penicillins comprise several subgroups of agents with a wide range of bacterial coverage and efficacy. Each penicillin molecule contains a basic β-lactam structure fused to a five-membered ring. Because of their broad spectrum of activity and availability in oral form, the penicillins are commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and have become the drugs of choice in treating many common infections.


The cephalosporins contain a basic β-lactam structure fused to a six-membered ring. Drugs in this class differ widely in their spectrum of activity, susceptibility to β-lactamases produced by bacteria, and serum half-life. Cephalosporins are categorized into four generations, with each newer generation representing an improvement in the spectrum of bacterial coverage. The most important agents in this class are the second- and third-generation agents, which are commonly used in hospitalized patients in combination with a macrolide.

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Learn here about Cefuroxime generation, dosage, uses, and other useful bits of information you should know about Cefuroxime 500mg and 250mg before taking the medication.