Urinary Tract Infections

Cervicitis, Ectropion & True Erosion

Cervicitis — Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis. Ectropion — hormonal changes with oral contraceptive use (especially with progesterone) or during pregnancy. True erosion — injury to atrophic epithelium due to estrogen deficiency in menopause.


Infectious cervicitis may be caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasmas, Herpes simplex or Trichomonas vaginalis. Chronic cervicitis is characterized by inflammation of the cervix without an identified pathogen.

Cervical Dysplasia

Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Difficult to assess due to wide variability in false negative Papsmear reporting and uneven distribution of qualified colposcopy practitioners. Prevalence 3,600/100,000 at age 27-28. Predominant age: The median age for carcinoma in situ is 28 years. Earlier lesions can be expected at younger ages