Tags: Zidovudine

Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System

Many viruses causing infection of the central nervous system (CNS) are covered in chapters devoted to each type of virus. For example, enteroviruses, the agents most frequently causing meningitis and occasionally encephalitis, are covered in site. The herpes viruses that cause meningitis, encephalitis, or both, especially herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are discussed in site.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a progressive, fatal illness of the central nervous system that is seen most frequently in the sixth and seventh decades of life. The disease is sporadic and found worldwide, with an incidence of disease of 1 case/million people per year. The mode of acquisition is unknown, but a higher incidence of the disease among Israelis of Libyan origin who eat sheep eyeballs has led to speculation that the disease may be transmitted by the ingestion of scrapie-infected tissue.

Rabies

Rabies is an acute fatal viral illness of the CNS. It can affect all mammals and is transmitted between them by infected secretions, most often by bite. It was first recognized more than 3000 years ago and has been among the most feared of infectious diseases.

Parvoviruses

Parvoviruses are widespread bird and mammalian viruses. More than 50 types have been identified, but the most common identified human pathogen is parvovirus B19. It is the cause of erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease) and is responsible for episodes of aplastic crises in patients with chronic anemia, especially those with hemolytic anemia and AIDS (Box 1). B19 is also associated with arthritis and intrauterine infection.

Poxviruses

Poxviruses are a large, complex family of viruses that cause disease in humans and other animals (Table 1). Of the many genera in this family, only species of Orthopoxvirus and Molluscipoxvirus are associated specifically with humans.

HIV & Other Retroviruses

Two major groups of retroviruses are considered in this chapter: the oncoviruses (“onco-,” related to a tumor) and the lentiviruses (“lenti-,” slow). Oncoviruses have long been associated with a variety of cancers in animals, including leukemia, lymphoma, and sarcoma; however, until recent years, oncoviruses had not been found to infect humans. The first human retrovirus, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), was discovered in the late 1970s. It was shown to cause adult T-cell leukemia, a rare malignancy found only in Japan, Africa, and the Caribbean (although serologic evidence shows that the virus also occurs in the United States and may be associated with some chronic neurologic conditions).

Clarithromycin 250mg, 500mg Tablets [US: Biaxin]

Clarithromycin belongs to a group of medicine called macrolide antibiotics. Antibiotics stop the growth of bacteria (bugs) which cause infections. Clarithromycin tablets are used to treat following infections: chest infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia, throat and sinus infections, skin and soft tissue infections, helicobacterpylori infections associated with duodenal ulcers.

Fluconazole 50mg, 100mg, 150mg, 200mg Capcules

Fluconazole belongs to the class of medicines called triazole derivatives, which are used to treat a variety yeast and other fungal infections (Candida and cryptococci), particularly those affecting the mouth, throat, lungs, urinary tract, blood and other organs. Fluconazole is also used to prevent fungal infections from occurring in people whose healthy defences against illness and infection are lessened (a suppressed immune system). It works by slowing the growth of fungi that cause infection.