Tags: Cidofovir

Herpesviruses

The herpesvirus group of the family Herpesviridae comprises large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses found in both animals and humans. They are ubiquitous and produce infections ranging from painful skin ulcers to chickenpox to encephalitis. The major members of the group to infect humans are the two herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpesvirus 6, and the recently discovered human herpesvirus types 7 and 8. Occasionally, the simian herpesvirus, herpes B virus, has caused human disease.

Cytomegalovirus

CMV is ubiquitous, and in developed countries ~50% of adults have developed antibody (Box 7). Age-specific prevalence rates show that ~ 10-15% of children are infected by CMV during the first 5 years of life, after which the rate of new infections levels off. The rate subsequently increases during young adulthood, probably through close personal contact or sexual transmission of the virus.

Order Generic Zovirax (Aciclovir) No Prescription 200/400/800mg

Neurotoxicity secondary to aciclovir is rare and is associated with high plasma concentrations, such as result from impaired renal function. Although the risk is greatest with intravenous administration, neurotoxicity has previously been noted with oral use. Symptoms of neurotoxicity, which usually appear within the first 24-72 hours of administration, include tremor, myoclonus, confusion, lethargy, agitation, hallucinations, dysarthria, asterixis, ataxia, hemiparesthesia, and seizures.

Condyloma Acuminata

Condyloma acuminata are soft skin colored, fleshy warts that are caused by the HPV (human papilloma virus). There are now > 100 known types of HPV and types 6, 11,16,18, 31, 33, 35 have been associated with condyloma acuminata. The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. They appear in the vagina, on the cervix, around the external genitalia and rectum, in the urethra, anus, also conjunctival, nasal, oral and laryngeal warts and occasionally, the throat.

Anti-Infective Therapy

Despite dire warnings that we are approaching the end of the antibiotic era, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria continues to rise. The proportions of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains continue to increase. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is now common throughout the world.

Antimicrobial Regimen Selection

A generally accepted systematic approach to the selection and evaluation of an antimicrobial regimen is shown in Table Systematic Approach for Selection of Antimicrobials. An «empiric» antimicrobial regimen is begun before the offending organism is identified, while a «definitive» regimen is instituted when the causative organism is known. The use of combinations to prevent the emergence of resistance is widely applied but not often realized. The only circumstance where this has been clearly effective is in the treatment of tuberculosis.

Infectious disorders

Infectious diseases comprise those illnesses that are caused by microorganisms or their products. Clinical manifestations of infection occur only when sufficient tissue injury has been inflicted directly by microbial products (e.g., endotoxins and exotoxins), or indirectly by host responses (e.g., cytokines and hydrolytic enzymes released by polymorphonuclear leukocytes). Despite the extraordinary recent advances that have occurred in therapeutics for infectious diseases, a number of basic principles should be followed to prescribe antimicrobials and vaccines is an optimal manner.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity.

Viread (Tenofovir Disoproxil)

Viread contains the active substance, tenofovir disoproxil. This active substance is an antiretroviral or antiviral medicine which is used to treat HIV or HBV or both. Tenofovir is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, generally known as an NRTI and works by interfering with the normal working of enzymes (in HIV reverse trans criptase; in hepatitis B DNA polymerase) that are essential for the viruses to reproduce themselves.