Tags: Botulism

Important Anaerobes

Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant component of the normal microbial flora of the human body. The following sites harbor the vast majority of them:

Toxin-Mediated Infections

Tetanus is a disease of global incidence produced by the toxin of Clostridium tetani. The risk of acquiring it increases in people > 60 years of age and in neonates, especially in Third World countries where poor sanitary conditions predispose to umbilical stump contamination. Immunization campaigns have played a crucial role in bringing about the observed decreasing incidence in the United States. The pathogenesis of tetanus involves the absorption of preformed toxin, or, less commonly, invasion of toxin-producing organisms from contaminated wounds; it may complicate surgical wounds colonized with C tetani.


An intoxication producing paralytic disease caused by neurotoxins of Clostridium botulism and is the most toxic substances known to science. The toxin prevents acetylcholine release at presynaptic membranes, blocking neuromuscular transmission in cholinergic nerve fibers. Electro my ogram (EMG) shows characteristic brief, low voltage compound motor-unit, small amplitude, overly abundant action potentials (BSAPs), incremental response to repetitive stimulation. Findings not definitive for botulism.

Management of Sepsis

Sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock, and multiorgan dysfunction are all part of a continuum of infection-related systemic illness. Table Definitions for Sepsis, Sepsis Syndrome, Septic Shock and Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome gives definitions for each of these entities. The pathogenesis of sepsis is very complex, involving a large number of mediators.

Penicillin G Potassium, Penicillin G Sodium

Penicillin G potassium is administered by IM injection or by continuous or intermittent IV infusion. The drug has also been administered orally and by intrapleural, intra-articular, and other local instillations.