Tags: Neomycin

Pathogenic Amebas

There are numerous distinct species of ameba within the genus Entamoeba, and the majority of these do not cause disease in humans. E histolytica is a pathogenic species that is capable of causing disease, such as colitis or liver abscess, in humans. E dispar is prevalent and is indistinguishable from E histolytica by conventional laboratory methods. E dispar exists in humans in only an asymptomatic carrier state and does not cause colitis.


Mumps, historically known as epidemic parotitis, was one of the most common early childhood infections before the routine use of mumps vaccination starting in 1968. Reported cases of mumps have dropped 98% when compared with the prevaccine era. It is spread primarily during the late winter and early spring. Before the vaccination era, mumps epidemics occurred in 3- to 4-year cycles.

Ofloxacin: Side Effects

The safety and efficacy of topical ofloxacin ear-drops 0.3% (0.25 ml bd) have been compared with that of co-amoxiclav oral suspension (40 mg/kg/day) for acute otitis media in 286 children aged 1-12 years with tympanostomy tubes in place. Topical ofloxacin was as effective as and better tolerated than systemic therapy with co-amoxiclav.

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Vaccines, Toxoids, and other Immunobiologics

Vaccine and toxoid recommendations. Diphtheria toxoid adsorbed (DTA) and Diphtheria antitoxin (DA). Haemophilus influenzae type (HIB) vaccines. Influenza virus vaccine. Measles vaccine. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Mumps vaccine. Pertussis vaccine. Poliovirus vaccines. Rubella vaccine. Varicella vaccine. Varicella-zoster immune globulin. Immune globulin.

Surgical Prophylaxis

The traditional classification system developed by the National Research Council  stratifying surgical procedures by infection risk is reproduced in Table NRC Wound Classification, Risk of SSI, and Indication for Antibiotics. The National Research Council wound classification for a specific procedure is determined intraoperatively.