Tags: Cholera

Brucella, Francisella, Pasteurella, Yersinia, & Hacek

Brucellosis (also called undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever) is an infection that causes abortion in domestic animals. It is caused by one of six species of Brucella coccobacilli. It may occasionally be transmitted to humans, in whom the disease could be acute or chronic with ongoing fever and constitutional symptoms without localized findings.

Vibrio & Campylobacter

Cholera is a disease of antiquity and probably represents some of the diarrheal illnesses described by Hippocrates and other early physicians. Robert Koch discovered V cholerae in 1884. Since the 17th century, at least eight epidemics of cholera have swept the globe. At least seven of the eight pandemics originated from the Ganges River delta, where cholera is endemic.

Campylobacter Infections

Campylobacter species are intestinal commensals in many animals, including cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, and turkeys. Contamination of foodstuffs during meat and dairy processing is thought to significantly contribute to the spread of disease. Unpasteurized dairy products, undercooked meats, and contaminated water serve as the vehicles for Campylobacter and other bacterial pathogens.

Noncholera Gastroenteritis

Noncholera gastroenteritis is often associated with recent ingestion of raw or undercooked shellfish and often occurs in the summer or early fall in the United States. A typical presentation includes explosive diarrhea, low-grade fever and chills, and mild-to-moderate abdominal pain with cramping.

Enteritis Caused by Escherichia coli & Shigella & Salmonella Species

The Enterobacteriaceae are a diverse family of bacteria that, in nature, exist in soil, on plant material, and in the intestines of humans and other animals. Another ecological niche in which these organisms thrive is the hospital. Many of these organisms cause a wide variety of extraintestinal diseases that are often nosocomial and commonly present in debilitated or immunocompromised hosts.

Escherichia Coli

E coli is the most common member of the Enterobacteriaceae to be isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Most E coli isolates are either opportunistic or nosocomial pathogens (ie, causes of urinary tract or wound infections) or normal flora (ie, enteric contaminants of urine cultures or normal stool flora in stool cultures).


An acute infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae (El Tor type is responsible for current epidemic, the other type, classic, is found only in Bangladesh). (New serotype now in Bangladesh, India (0139). Important because of lack of efficacy of standard vaccine.) Characteristics include severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and electrolyte depletion, and vomiting, muscle cramps and prostration.