Tags: Toxic shock syndrome

Neisseria Meningitidis

N meningitidis is found only in humans and is a member of the normal oropharyngeal flora in 5-15% of healthy adults and children. In crowded or closed populations such as in boarding schools or military camps, higher carriage rates are observed.

Streptococcus Pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen without an animal reservoir. Group A streptococci (GAS) cause most streptococcal disease, but other groups are important pathogens in some settings (Box 1). Group A streptococcal infections have the highest incidence in children younger than age 10. The asymptomatic prevalence is also higher (15-20%) in children, compared with that in adults (<5%).

Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

In the late 1980s, invasive GAS infections occurred in North America and Europe in previously healthy individuals of all ages. This illness is associated with bacteremia, deep soft-tissue infection, shock, multi-organ failure, and death in 30% of cases. StrepTSS occurs sporadically, although minor epidemics have been reported. Most patients present with a viral-like prodrome, history of minor trauma, recent surgery, or varicella infection.

Staphylococci

Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the human skin, vagina, nasopharynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonization occurs shortly after birth and may be either transient or persistent. Published studies differ widely in estimates of the prevalence of S aureus carriage.

Anti-Infective Therapy

Despite dire warnings that we are approaching the end of the antibiotic era, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria continues to rise. The proportions of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains continue to increase. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is now common throughout the world.

Respiratory Tract Infections, Upper

The goals of treatment include reduction in signs and symptoms, eradication of infection, and prevention of complications. Avoidance of unnecessary antibiotic use is another goal in view of S. pneumonia. dClindamycin is only recommended in cases of documented S. pneumoniae. It is not effective against H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis.

Management of Sepsis

Sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock, and multiorgan dysfunction are all part of a continuum of infection-related systemic illness. Table Definitions for Sepsis, Sepsis Syndrome, Septic Shock and Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome gives definitions for each of these entities. The pathogenesis of sepsis is very complex, involving a large number of mediators.

Sepsis

Sepsis. Description of Medical Condition. Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease. What Causes Disease?