Tags: Salpingitis

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes in both sexes. In addition, certain serotypes of C trachomatis are responsible for trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness in humans. C psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia.

Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections

C trachomatis is associated with urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in women and men; epididymitis in men; and mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), acute salpingitis, bartholinitis, and the Fitz-Hugh and Curtis syndrome in women (Box 1). C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see site) coinfections are common in women with MPC and men with urethritis. In men, C trachomatis is the most common etiologic agent of the nongonococcal (NGU) and postgonococcal urethritis (PGU) syndromes.

Vibrio & Campylobacter

Cholera is a disease of antiquity and probably represents some of the diarrheal illnesses described by Hippocrates and other early physicians. Robert Koch discovered V cholerae in 1884. Since the 17th century, at least eight epidemics of cholera have swept the globe. At least seven of the eight pandemics originated from the Ganges River delta, where cholera is endemic.

Extraintestinal Campylobacteriosis

C fetus infection may manifest as fever, chills, and myalgias, without definitive localization; additionally, this organism displays a propensity to infect vascular structures. Endocarditis, intravascular infection of abdominal aortic aneurysms, and septic thrombophlebitis with vessel necrosis have been reported. Fetal death, even with appropriate antibiotic therapy, may occur. Fetal complications most commonly occur during the second trimester of pregnancy.

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen.

Enterococci: Clinical Syndromes

Urinary tract infections, including uncomplicated cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and perinephric abscess, are the most common type of clinical infections produced by enterococci (Box 1). Most enterococcal urinary tract infections are nosocomial and are associated with urinary catheterization or instrumentation. Nosocomial enterococcal bacteremias are commonly polymicrobial. Portals of entry for enterococcal bacteremia include the urinary tract, intra-abdominal or pelvic sources, wounds (especially burns, decubitus ulcers, and diabetic foot infections), intravascular catheters, and the biliary tree.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Trichomoniasis

The spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases includes the classic venereal diseases – gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale – as well as a variety of other pathogens known to be spread by sexual contact (Table Sexually Transmitted Diseases). Common clinical syndromes associated with sexually transmitted diseases are listed in Table Selected Syndromes Associated with Common Sexually Transmitted Pathogens.

Gonorrhea. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

All currently recommended regimens are single-dose treatments with various oral or parenteral cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Ceftriaxone (125 mg intramuscularly) is the only parenteral agent recommended by the Centers for Disease Control as a first-line agent for treatment of gonorrhea.

Intra-abdominal Infections

Intra-abdominal infections are those contained within the peritoneum or retroperitoneal space. Two general types of intra-abdominal infection are discussed throughout this chapter: peritonitis and abscess.

Extended-Spectrum Penicillins General Statement

Oral carbenicillin indanyl sodium is used only for the treatment of acute or chronic infections of the upper and lower urinary tract, asymptomatic bacteriuria, or prostatitis caused by susceptible organisms.