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Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes in both sexes. In addition, certain serotypes of C trachomatis are responsible for trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness in humans. C psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia.

Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections

C trachomatis is associated with urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in women and men; epididymitis in men; and mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), acute salpingitis, bartholinitis, and the Fitz-Hugh and Curtis syndrome in women (Box 1). C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see site) coinfections are common in women with MPC and men with urethritis. In men, C trachomatis is the most common etiologic agent of the nongonococcal (NGU) and postgonococcal urethritis (PGU) syndromes.

Neisseria Meningitidis

N meningitidis is found only in humans and is a member of the normal oropharyngeal flora in 5-15% of healthy adults and children. In crowded or closed populations such as in boarding schools or military camps, higher carriage rates are observed.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Trichomoniasis

The spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases includes the classic venereal diseases – gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale – as well as a variety of other pathogens known to be spread by sexual contact (Table Sexually Transmitted Diseases). Common clinical syndromes associated with sexually transmitted diseases are listed in Table Selected Syndromes Associated with Common Sexually Transmitted Pathogens.

Spectinomycin Hydrochloride

Spectinomycin is used in the treatment of uncomplicated cervical, urethral, or rectal gonorrhea caused by susceptible Neisseria gonorrhoeae and also is used in the treatment of disseminated gonococcal infections. Although not considered a drug of choice for the treatment of gonococcal infections, spectinomycin is considered a useful alternative for the treatment of gonococcal infections in patients who are hypersensitive to or cannot tolerate cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

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Doxycycline calcium, doxycycline hyclate, and doxycycline monohydrate are administered orally. When oral therapy is not feasible, doxycycline hyclate may be administered by slow IV infusion; however, oral therapy should replace IV therapy as soon as possible.

Tetracyclines General Statement: Uses

Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

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Erythromycin stearate is administered orally. Optimal absorption occurs when the drug is administered in the fasting state or immediately before a meal. The usual adult dosage of erythromycin as the stearate is 250 mg every 6 hours or 500 mg every 12 hours.

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Erythromycin ethylsuccinate is administered orally. Erythromycin ethylsuccinate oral suspensions, chewable tablets, and film-coated tablets may be administered without regard to meals. Chewable tablets should not be swallowed whole. The fixed-combination preparation containing erythromycin ethylsuccinate and sulfisoxazole acetyl is administered orally and may be given without regard to meals.

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Dosage of erythromycin estolate is expressed in terms of erythromycin. The usual adult oral dosage of erythromycin as the estolate is 250 mg every 6 hours. In severe infections, dosage may be increased to 4 g or more daily.