Tags: Epiglottitis

Haemophilus, Bordetella, & Branhamella Species

Before 1990, strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b were found in the upper respiratory tract of 3-5% of children and a small percentage of adults. Colonization rates with type-b strains are even lower now, reflecting routine immunization of infants against H influenzae type b. Non-type-b encapsulated H influenzae are present in the nasopharynx of < 2% of individuals, whereas nonencapsulated (nontypable [see below]) strains colonize the respiratory tract of 40-80% of children and adults.

Haemophilus Influenzae: Clinical Syndromes

H influenzae was first isolated during the 1892 influenza pandemic and was originally believed to be the causative agent of influenza. Although subsequent studies revealed the fallacy of this idea, H influenzae has proved to be a common cause of localized respiratory tract and systemic disease, including meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, pyogenic arthritis, cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis, among others (Box 1). Meningitis is the most common and serious form of invasive H influenzae type-b disease. In the mid-1980s, before the introduction of effective vaccines, ~ 10,000-12,000 cases of H influenzae type-b meningitis occurred in the United States each year, and 95% of cases involved children < 5 years old.

Streptococcus Dysgalactiae Subspp. Equisilimis & Streptococcus Zooepidemicus: Clinical Syndromes

The symptoms of pharyngitis caused by these organisms mimic those of S pyogenes pharyngitis (Box 50-1; see also site). Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis has been described following S dysgalactiae subspp. equisimilis and S zooepidemicus pharyngitis.

Parainfluenza Virus

Parainfluenza is a ubiquitous virus. It is the primary cause of acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) in children aged 6 months to 3 years. It is capable of infecting the lower respiratory tract as well by manifesting as bronchiolitis or pneumonia. Outbreaks can follow regular epidemic patterns or be sporadic. Certain antigenic types (described below) do follow epidemic patterns.

Order Ampicillin (Principen) No Prescription 250/500mg

Ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium is used parenterally for the treatment of skin and skin structure, intra-abdominal, and gynecologic infections caused by susceptible bacteria. The drug also has been used parenterally for the treatment of other infections, including respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria.