Tags: Clarithromycin

Toxoplasma Gondii

Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes of infection in humans are by oral ingestion of the parasite and by transplacental (congenital) transmission to the fetus. Ingestion of undercooked or raw meat that contains cysts or of water or food contaminated with oocysts results in acute infection.

Toxoplasma Gondii: Treatment

Immunocompetent adults and children with toxoplasmic lymphadenitis do not require treatment unless symptoms are severe or persistent. Infections acquired by laboratory accident or transfusion of blood products are potentially more severe, and these patients should always be treated. The combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and folinic acid for 4-6 weeks is the most commonly used and recommended drug regimen (Box 2).

Fever & Bacteremia/Trench Fever/Endocarditis

Patients complain of fever, myalgias, malaise, headache, bone pain — particularly of the legs, and a transient macular rash. Usually the illness continues for 4-6 weeks.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes in both sexes. In addition, certain serotypes of C trachomatis are responsible for trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness in humans. C psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia.

Mycoplasma & Ureaplasma

Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species (mycoplasmas) are ubiquitous in nature and are commonly found in plants, animals, and humans. These bacteria contain the smallest amount of double-stranded DNA that is capable of producing a free-living microorganism; they measure between 0.15 and 0.3 um in diameter and = 2 um in length.

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection & Disease

Infected humans are the only source of M pneumoniae organisms for transmission to new susceptible hosts. M pneumoniae is spread from one individual to another by respiratory droplets produced by coughing. Individuals at any age can be infected and develop disease, but those between the ages of 5 and 20 years are most often affected. M pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia in school-aged children and young adults — especially those in military and college populations.

Borrelia & Leptospira Species

The syndrome of relapsing fever consists of two clinical entities: epidemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis (LBRF) and transmitted by the human body louse and endemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia spp. (TBRF) and transmitted by arthropods (Table 1). A. Epidemiology. 1. Louse-borne epidemic relapsing fever (LBRF).

Other Mycobacteria

The increasingly relative importance of the atypical mycobacteria, many of which are ubiquitous in the environment, was recognized with the decline in tuberculous disease. Generally, atypical mycobacteria are unusual causes of disease in patients who are immunocompetent but can in immunocompromised hosts such as AIDS and cancer patients.

Legionella

More than 25 species and 48 serogroups of Legionella have been identified. Legionella pneumophila (especially serogroup 1) causes ~ 70-80% of cases of legionellosis, but L micdadei, L bozemanii, L dumoffi, L feelei, L longbeacheii, and other species are also pathogenic. The true incidence of legionellosis, which includes Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever, is difficult to establish.