Tags: Chloramphenicol

Bartonella

There are currently 11 known species of Bartonella, four of which are considered to be pathogenic in humans, namely B bacilliformis, B quintana, B henselae, and Bartonella elizabethae. B henselae and B elizabethae have only recently been isolated and identified, but B quintana and B bacilliformis have long been known as the causes of trench fever (B quintana) and Oroya fever and verruga peruana (B bacilliformis). The bartonellae establish intimate relationships with animal hosts, often within the vascular compartment but without causing disease. The relationship between B bacilliformis and the other three Bartonella species that are pathogenic in humans was established in the early 1990s.

Fever & Bacteremia/Trench Fever/Endocarditis

Patients complain of fever, myalgias, malaise, headache, bone pain — particularly of the legs, and a transient macular rash. Usually the illness continues for 4-6 weeks.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)

RMSF is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and is an acute tick-borne illness occurring during seasonal tick activity. The disease is characterized by acute onset of fever, headache, and a rash of the extremities spreading to the trunk. A. Epidemiology.

Ehrlichia Infection (Ehrlichiosis)

Ehrlichiosis is not a reportable disease, so its true incidence is unknown. The majority of cases of HME have been reported from the south, central, and southeastern United States. Cases have also been reported from Western Europe, Scandinavia, and Africa. In contrast, most cases of HGE have been reported from the upper midwestern and northeastern United States.

Borrelia & Leptospira Species

The syndrome of relapsing fever consists of two clinical entities: epidemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis (LBRF) and transmitted by the human body louse and endemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia spp. (TBRF) and transmitted by arthropods (Table 1). A. Epidemiology. 1. Louse-borne epidemic relapsing fever (LBRF).

Brucella, Francisella, Pasteurella, Yersinia, & Hacek

Brucellosis (also called undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever) is an infection that causes abortion in domestic animals. It is caused by one of six species of Brucella coccobacilli. It may occasionally be transmitted to humans, in whom the disease could be acute or chronic with ongoing fever and constitutional symptoms without localized findings.

Yersiniosis

Conditions that are associated with increased risk for Yersinia spp. infections (yersiniosis) include iron overload states (such as in patients who receive chronic blood transfusions or those with hemochromatosis) and the use of desferrioxamine, a bacterial siderophore. Infections caused by Y enterocolitica are more common in children than adults.

Plague

The genus Yersinia, named after Alexander Yersin (1863-1943), includes Y pestis, Y enterocolitica, and Y pseudotuberculosis. Y pestis is the cause of plague, a disease that has left its mark on human history since the medieval time. Y enterocolitica and Y pseudotuberculosis also cause mesenteric lymphadenitis. Plague occurs worldwide.

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia (also called rabbit fever or deerfly fever), an infectious disease that occurs primarily in animals. It may occasionally cause human disease, which most often manifests itself by one or more skin lesions, regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and constitutional symptoms.