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Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Buy Ceclor (Cefaclor) Without Prescription 250/500mg

Cefaclor capsules and oral suspension are used for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) caused by susceptible S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. pyogenes. Cefaclor extended-release tablets are used for the treatment of mild to moderate acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or secondary infections of acute bronchitis caused by susceptible Haemophilus influenzae (non-b-lactamase-producing strains only), Moraxella (formerly Branhamella) catarrhalis (including b-lactamase-producing strains), or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Cost of Azithromycin 250/500mg Tablets (Zithromax) Without Insurance

Azithromycin (Zithromax) acts by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of susceptible microorganisms and interfering with microbial protein synthesis. It demonstrates activity in vitro against a wide range of bacteria, including gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and other streptococci, and gram-negative bacteria such as H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae.

Pediatric Infectious Disease

Toxic shock is an acute disease characterized by fever, mucous membrane hyperemia, subcutaneous edema, desquamating erythroderma, hypotension, and multisystem organ involvement. A decade ago it was widely described as an illness affecting young women, associated with vaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and the use of tampons. Subsequent studies demonstrated that S. aureus produces several related enterotoxins — including toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) — that are thought to cause the disorder by activating host inflammatory responses and by triggering the release of cytokines. Not all cases of toxic shock are associated with menstruation, however, and not all cases are associated with S. aureus.