Tags: Augmentin

Haemophilus, Bordetella, & Branhamella Species

Before 1990, strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b were found in the upper respiratory tract of 3-5% of children and a small percentage of adults. Colonization rates with type-b strains are even lower now, reflecting routine immunization of infants against H influenzae type b. Non-type-b encapsulated H influenzae are present in the nasopharynx of < 2% of individuals, whereas nonencapsulated (nontypable [see below]) strains colonize the respiratory tract of 40-80% of children and adults.

Branhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical Syndromes

B catarrhalis causes bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a rare cause of invasive disease, including meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia without a focus, septic arthritis, and cellulitis.

Itraconazole 100 mg Capsules (Sporanox)

Like other azoles, it interferes with the cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme, 14a-demethylase. This leads to 14-methylsterol accumulation and ergosterol depletion in fungal cells and this results in alterations in a number of membrane-associated cell functions. Itraconazole has a broad spectrum of action including Aspergillus species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida species, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Scedosporium apiospermum and Sporothrix schenckii.

Cervicitis, Ectropion & True Erosion

Cervicitis — Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis. Ectropion — hormonal changes with oral contraceptive use (especially with progesterone) or during pregnancy. True erosion — injury to atrophic epithelium due to estrogen deficiency in menopause.

Cellulitis

An acute, spreading infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Several entities are recognized: Treat 10-30 days. Guided by culture results whenever possible.

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Respiratory Tract Infections, Lower

Bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia clinical presentation and treatment.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Order Augmentin (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is used orally for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections, and urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium also has been used orally for the treatment of chancroid and gonorrhea caused by susceptible organisms. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium has been effective when used orally in adults and children for the treatment of abscesses, cellulitis, and impetigo caused by susceptible penicillinase-producing and nonpenicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes (group A b-hemolytic streptococci), or Corynebacterium. Results of several controlled studies indicate that amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is as effective as cefaclor in the treatment of these infections.

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants.