Tags: Antibiotic-associated colitis

Important Anaerobes

Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant component of the normal microbial flora of the human body. The following sites harbor the vast majority of them:

Toxin-Mediated Infections

Tetanus is a disease of global incidence produced by the toxin of Clostridium tetani. The risk of acquiring it increases in people > 60 years of age and in neonates, especially in Third World countries where poor sanitary conditions predispose to umbilical stump contamination. Immunization campaigns have played a crucial role in bringing about the observed decreasing incidence in the United States. The pathogenesis of tetanus involves the absorption of preformed toxin, or, less commonly, invasion of toxin-producing organisms from contaminated wounds; it may complicate surgical wounds colonized with C tetani.

Enterococci

Enterococci are able to grow and survive under harsh conditions and can be found in soil, food, water, and a wide variety of animals. The major habitat of these organisms is the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, where they make up a significant portion of the normal gut flora. Most enterococci isolated from human stools are E faecalis, although E faecium are also commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Small numbers of enterococci are occasionally found in oropharyngeal and vaginal secretions and on the skin, especially in the perineal area.

Penicillins: Side Effects

Another method of combating beta-lactamase-producing organisms has been the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors. Clinical experience with penicillins, especially penicillin G and the aminopenicillins, is extensive. These substances are rarely toxic, even when they are given in an extended range of dosages, making them invaluable for use in pregnant women and children.

Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity.

Chloromycetin 250mg Tablets (Chloramphenicol)

Vancomycin and teicoplanin are the only members of this class of antibiotics. Vancomycin is a high-molecular-weight glycopeptide that is bactericidal for gram-positive microorganisms. It inhibits cell-wall synthesis. Given parenterally, it is the drug of choice for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride: Uses

IV vancomycin hydrochloride is used in the treatment of potentially life-threatening infections caused by susceptible organisms which cannot be treated with other effective, less toxic anti-infective agents. Vancomycin is used principally for the treatment of severe infections caused by gram-positive bacteria in patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections that are resistant to b-lactams and other anti-infectives. Prevention of the emergence of drug resistance, its dissemination among pathogens, and the spread of such pathogens has become an increasingly important public health problem. Medical, pharmacy, and other staff and individuals responsible for drug-use policy and formulary decisions should review and restrict the use of certain anti-infectives, including vancomycin, and ensure that their use is appropriate.

Dalacin C Phosphate (Clindamycin phosphate) 150 mg/ml Sterile Solution

Dalacin C Solution is a sterile solution for injection into a vein (intravenously) or into a muscle (intramuscularly). The solution contains clindamycin phosphate which is an antibiotic used in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. If you are allergic (hypersensitive) to clindamycin, lincomycin or to any of the other ingredients in this medicine. Take special care with Dalacin C Solution