Tags: Ancef

Other Gram-Positive Cocci

Viridans streptococci are part of the normal microbial flora of humans and animals and are indigenous to the upper respiratory tract, the female genital tract, all regions of the gastrointestinal tract, and, most significantly, the oral cavity. Clinically significant species that are currently recognized as belonging to the viridans group of streptococci include Streptococcus anginosus S constellatus, S cristatus, S gordonii, S intermedius, S oralis, S mitis, S mutans, S cricettus, S rattis, S parasanguis, S salivarius, S thermophilus, S sanguinis, S sobrinus, and S vestibularis. Detailed studies of the ecology of strains in the oral cavity and oropharynx have been performed.


Enterococci are able to grow and survive under harsh conditions and can be found in soil, food, water, and a wide variety of animals. The major habitat of these organisms is the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, where they make up a significant portion of the normal gut flora. Most enterococci isolated from human stools are E faecalis, although E faecium are also commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Small numbers of enterococci are occasionally found in oropharyngeal and vaginal secretions and on the skin, especially in the perineal area.

Streptococcus Pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen without an animal reservoir. Group A streptococci (GAS) cause most streptococcal disease, but other groups are important pathogens in some settings (Box 1). Group A streptococcal infections have the highest incidence in children younger than age 10. The asymptomatic prevalence is also higher (15-20%) in children, compared with that in adults (<5%).

Streptococcus Pneumoniae

S pneumoniae may exist in humans as either a nasopharyngeal colonist or as a pathogen in one of many clinical syndromes (Box 1). Although S pneumoniae has been found in other mammals, humans are thought to be the principal reservoir. As a colonist, S pneumoniae is found in up to 40% of children and 10% of adults.

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Cefazolin Sodium

Cefazolin is used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, biliary tract infections, bone and joint infections, genital infections, septicemia, and endocarditis caused by susceptible bacteria.