Tags: Anaerobic bacterial infections

Toxin-Mediated Infections

Tetanus is a disease of global incidence produced by the toxin of Clostridium tetani. The risk of acquiring it increases in people > 60 years of age and in neonates, especially in Third World countries where poor sanitary conditions predispose to umbilical stump contamination. Immunization campaigns have played a crucial role in bringing about the observed decreasing incidence in the United States. The pathogenesis of tetanus involves the absorption of preformed toxin, or, less commonly, invasion of toxin-producing organisms from contaminated wounds; it may complicate surgical wounds colonized with C tetani.

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For amebiasis there is still discussion about the use of a single high dose versus repeated lower doses, both as regards efficacy and adverse effects. The use of metronidazole against infections with anerobic bacteria has increased over the years, and with this indication the use of metronidazole in combination with many other drugs used by patients with conditions likely to develop secondary anaerobic bacterial infections. With increased use there is also a widespread and increasing incidence of resistance of various strains of bacteria. The use of metronidazole as an added medication merely “to make assurance double sure” is to be discouraged.

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Clindamycin generally is used for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible gram-positive bacteria and for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Because the risk of severe, potentially fatal Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis may be higher with clindamycin than with certain other anti-infectives, use of the drug should be limited to serious infections for which less toxic and/or more effective anti-infectives are not readily available. However, it should be noted that C. difficile diarrhea and colitis has been associated with the use of nearly all anti-infectives, being reported most frequently with clindamycin, cephalosporins, and ampicillin; second and third generation cephalosporins play an increasingly important role.

Ticarcillin Disodium and Clavulanate Potassium: Uses

Ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium is used for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections, bone and joint infections, septicemia, intra-abdominal infections (e.g., peritonitis), and gynecologic infections (e.g., endometritis), caused by susceptible organisms.

Ticarcillin Disodium

The drug also has been used for the treatment of anaerobic or mixed aerobic-anaerobic bacterial infections or for empiric anti-infective therapy in febrile granulocytopenic patients. For specific information on the uses of ticarcillin, seeUses in the Extended-Spectrum Penicillins General Statement 8:12.16.16. For information on the uses of ticarcillin in a fixed-ratio combination with clavulanic acid. Ticarcillin disodium is administered by slow IV injection or infusion or by deep IM injection.

Aminoglycosides: Amikacin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, or Tobramycin

Amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, or tobramycin is used IM or IV in the short-term treatment of serious infections such as septicemia (including neonatal sepsis), bone and joint infections, skin and soft tissue infections (including those resulting from burns), respiratory tract infections, and postoperative and intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis) caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria.

Extended-Spectrum Penicillins General Statement

Oral carbenicillin indanyl sodium is used only for the treatment of acute or chronic infections of the upper and lower urinary tract, asymptomatic bacteriuria, or prostatitis caused by susceptible organisms.

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Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is used orally for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections, and urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium also has been used orally for the treatment of chancroid and gonorrhea caused by susceptible organisms. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium has been effective when used orally in adults and children for the treatment of abscesses, cellulitis, and impetigo caused by susceptible penicillinase-producing and nonpenicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes (group A b-hemolytic streptococci), or Corynebacterium. Results of several controlled studies indicate that amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is as effective as cefaclor in the treatment of these infections.

Preface to the Penicillins General Statements

Based on Spectra of Activity Penicillins are natural or semisynthetic antibiotics produced by or derived from certain species of the fungus Penicillium. The drugs are b-lactam antibiotics structurally and pharmacologically related to other b-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and cephamycins.

Buy Chloromycetin (Chloramphenicol) No Prescription 250mg

Chloramphenicol should be used only for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible bacteria or Rickettsia when potentially less toxic drugs are ineffective or contraindicated. The drug must not be used for the treatment of trivial infections, as a prophylactic agent to prevent bacterial infections, or when it is not indicated as in the treatment of colds, influenza, or throat infections.