Tags: Amantadine

Influenza

Influenza is a highly contagious, acute, febrile respiratory illness caused by influenza A and B viruses. The hallmark of these viruses is their ability to undergo rapid ongoing antigenic change and to cause annual or near-annual epidemics of febrile respiratory disease affecting all age groups. In addition, the unpredictable emergence of new influenza A subtypes can lead to explosive global pandemics of disease.

Rhinoviruses

Rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of the common cold. One hundred two serotypes have been identified by neutralization with specific antisera, and additional strains have been isolated but are not yet typed. Rhinoviruses can be transmitted by two mechanisms: aerosols and direct contact (eg, with contaminated hands or inanimate objects).

Enteroviruses

Enteroviruses are one of three types of picornaviruses that cause disease in humans. As the name indicates, picornaviruses are small (pico) ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that have a naked capsid structure. The family includes > 230 members divided into five genera but only three—enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, and hepatoviruses (hepatitis A virus)—cause human disease.

Enteroviruses: Clinical Syndromes

Polio vaccines and global eradication efforts have eliminated poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere and are expected to eliminate “wild” polio infections from the world in the near future. However, vaccine-associated cases of polio do occur. Paralytic poliomyelitis is characterized by an asymmetric flaccid paralysis with no sensory loss.

Amantadine: Side effects

Amantadine is a symmetrical C10 tricyclic amine with an unusual structure (1-adamantanamine hydrochloride). It interferes with virus uncoating by blocking the M2 ion channel, which is needed to affect a pH change that helps to initiate the uncoating process. Most consistent antiviral activity has been observed against influenza A virus, but amantadine has little or no activity against influenza B virus. However, influenza A virus can become rapidly resistant to amantadine in vitro.

Specific Causes Of Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Great overlap occurs among the clinical manifestations of the pathogens associated with acute community-acquired pneumonia. However, constellations of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings serve to narrow the possibilities. By developing an ability to focus on a few pathogens or to identify a specific pathogen, clinicians can better predict the clinical course of pneumonia and can narrow antibiotic coverage. Pathogenic strains of S. pneumoniae have a thick capsule that prevents PMN binding and that blocks phagocytosis.

Anti-Infective Therapy

Despite dire warnings that we are approaching the end of the antibiotic era, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria continues to rise. The proportions of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains continue to increase. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is now common throughout the world.

Respiratory Tract Infections, Lower

Bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia clinical presentation and treatment.

Pneumonia – The Most Common Infectious

Pneumonia is the most common infectious cause of death in the United States. It occurs in persons of all ages, although the clinical manifestations are most severe in the very young, the elderly, and the chronically ill. The course of anaerobic pneumonia is typically indolent with cough, low-grade fever, and weight loss, although an acute presentation may occur. Putrid sputum, when present, is highly suggestive of the diagnosis.