Tags: Allergy

Primary Bacteremia & Endocarditis

Staphylococci (both S aureus and CoNS) have emerged as the two most common organisms cultured from patients with primary bloodstream infections. The term “primary bacteremia” refers to positive blood cultures without an identifiable anatomic focus of infection. Differentiation of primary bacteremia from infective endocarditis (IE), in which infection of the cardiac valves leads to continuous bacterial seeding of the bloodstream, may challenge even the most experienced clinician. Primary S aureus bacteremia is associated with insulin-dependent diabetes, the presence of a vascular graft, and, most significantly, the presence of an indwelling intravascular catheter.

Mumps

Mumps, historically known as epidemic parotitis, was one of the most common early childhood infections before the routine use of mumps vaccination starting in 1968. Reported cases of mumps have dropped 98% when compared with the prevaccine era. It is spread primarily during the late winter and early spring. Before the vaccination era, mumps epidemics occurred in 3- to 4-year cycles.

Fluconazole 50mg, 100mg, 150mg, 200mg Capcules

Fluconazole belongs to the class of medicines called triazole derivatives, which are used to treat a variety yeast and other fungal infections (Candida and cryptococci), particularly those affecting the mouth, throat, lungs, urinary tract, blood and other organs. Fluconazole is also used to prevent fungal infections from occurring in people whose healthy defences against illness and infection are lessened (a suppressed immune system). It works by slowing the growth of fungi that cause infection.

Penicillins: Side Effects

Another method of combating beta-lactamase-producing organisms has been the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors. Clinical experience with penicillins, especially penicillin G and the aminopenicillins, is extensive. These substances are rarely toxic, even when they are given in an extended range of dosages, making them invaluable for use in pregnant women and children.

Penicillins: Organs and Systems: Immunologic

Anaphylactic shock can occur, even after oral administration of penicillin and skin testing. However, anaphylactic shock is less common after oral than parenteral administration. In one study the incidence of anaphylactic shock was 0.04% of all patients treated with penicillin. It is also low in patients receiving long-term benzathine penicillin (1.2 million units every 4 weeks).

Penicillins: Organs and Systems: Skin

Skin reactions are the commonest adverse effects of therapeutically administered penicillins. Penicillin-contaminated milk or meat can cause itching or generalized skin reactions or even anaphylaxis. The overall annual incidence of severe erythema multi-forme (toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome) is about one case per million, antibiotics being involved in 30-40%. The clinical differentiation between these syndromes can be difficult.