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Pediatric Infectious Disease

Toxic shock is an acute disease characterized by fever, mucous membrane hyperemia, subcutaneous edema, desquamating erythroderma, hypotension, and multisystem organ involvement. A decade ago it was widely described as an illness affecting young women, associated with vaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and the use of tampons. Subsequent studies demonstrated that S. aureus produces several related enterotoxins — including toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) — that are thought to cause the disorder by activating host inflammatory responses and by triggering the release of cytokines. Not all cases of toxic shock are associated with menstruation, however, and not all cases are associated with S. aureus.

Zagam (sparfloxacin) – fluoroquinolone antibiotic

Sparfloxacin is expected to be especially useful against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Rhone-Poulenc Rorer is also studying the use of sparfloxacin for acute maxillary sinusitis, skin infection, and complicated urinary tract infection. In clinical trials, sparfloxacin (Zagam) was comparable to erythromycin and cefaclor for clearing community-acquired pneumonia.

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Anthrax has caused disease in animals for centuries, but its threat as a biological weapon has become most apparent in the last 80 years. Today at least 17 nations are believed to have offensive biological weapons programs in place, and it is not known for sure how many are working with anthrax. Iraq, in particular, has acknowledged that it is producing anthrax for such potential use. Infection with anthrax, which is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is usually fatal.

2 Antiretroviral Drugs: Fuzeon and Reyataz

Since the introduction of zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir) in 1987, a relatively large number of drugs have been developed for the treatment of HIV-induced AIDS. Currently available antiretroviral drugs are subclassified based on their chemical structure and site of action as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine and abacavir), non­nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs: nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz) and protease inhibitors (PIs: saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, and lopinavir). The use of these and all antiretrovirals as monotherapy is limited largely by the rapid development of viral resistance. Thus current Public Health Service HIV treatment guidelines recommend the use of drug combinations consisting of three or four anti-AIDS drugs.

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Levofloxacin (Levaquin) is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated skin infections caused by S. aureus and S. pyogenes. Two large clinical trials in Japan demonstrated levofloxacin’s effects against various skin pathogens, the majority of which were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci.

Cubicin (daptomycin) : drug for skin infections

Daptomycin (Cubicin) is a cyclic lipopeptide natural product and thus represents a new structural class of antibacterial drugs with a mechanism of action that is different from those of other available antibiotics. It produces its antimicrobial effects by binding to bacterial membranes and causing a rapid depolarization of membrane potential.

Symptoms of Shigella dysentery

My daughters’ school has sent home a note telling us that there is a serious problem with a bacterial infection called Shigella in her school and others in our county. I have heard that is can be dangerous so I would love your input on this problem. My daughter does not have it but I want to know everything about it in case it does happen.