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Efficient prevention of the HIV reproduction

Prevention of HIV reproduction

The current paradigm of treating HIV mainly focuses on the interruption of the HIV reproductive cycle. Since there exists no efficient therapeutic agent capable of eliminating pathogenic virions in the human cells and, consequently, providing full recovery, the approved curing strategy involves the implementation of medications capable of reducing HIV basic reproduction number and decreasing the development of the illness, providing reliable long-term effects.

The best therapeutic results are achieved with the combination of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir. Emtricitabine and Tenofovir are phosphorylated by cellular enzymes. These metabolic processes result in the formation of triphosphates and diphosphates, respectively. The formed Emtricitabine triphosphate and Tenofovir diphosphate competitively inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, resulting in the termination of the synthesis of the DNA chains.

Emtricitabine provides antiviral activity against HIV-1 A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. Tenofovir demonstrates antiviral activity against HIV-1 A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and J. Both Emtricitabine and Tenofovir show specific activity against HIV-2.

Advantages of the Efavirenz-Emtricitabine-Tenofovir combination

The combination of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir is used alone or along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults. It is also used to treat children weighing more than 40 kg. These medications represent the class of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). These substances work by decreasing the number of active virions in the human cells. Although these medications do not provide the direct curative effect, they may decrease the chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related illnesses, such as serious infections or cancer.

Efavirenz Emtricitabine Tenofovir (Viraday)

This combination decreases the HIV reproduction rate allowing the infected to prevent the development of severe negative symptoms. Administration of these medications along with practicing safe sex and introducing other precautionary lifestyle changes may decrease the risk of getting HIV or transmitting the virus to other people.

The combination of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir comes in the form of tablets for oral administration. It is usually taken once per day (at least one hour before or two hours after a meal). Patients should continue taking the drugs even if they feel better. Even short-termed discontinuation of the therapy may lead to the development of resistance to the medications.

Precautions

The said combination should not be used to treat HBV. Tell your doctor if you have or think you may have HBV. Before taking the combination, you should inform your health care provider about the following conditions:

  • Allergy to Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, or Tenofovir, or any of the ingredient of the pill.
  • Health disorders associated with the prolonged QT interval syndrome (rare heart problems that may cause irregular heartbeat), or low levels of potassium/magnesium in the blood.
  • Depression or any other mental illness.
  • Bone fractures.
  • Liver/kidney diseases.

Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, or plan to become pregnant. You should not plan pregnancy during the treatment and for 12 weeks after the last dose. The said combination may interfere with the effects provided by certain hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills and implants), which means that you should eschew using these birth control methods as the only reliable method during the therapy.

You should be aware that your body fat ratio might increase because of the therapy. The said combination of drugs also may make you drowsy, dizzy, or unable to concentrate. Eschew driving and/or operating sophisticated mechanisms until you know for sure how this combination affects you.

The results of the decreased HIV reproduction may be unnoticeable during the first days of the treatment.

Inform your pharmacist about other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention whether or not you are taking one of the following therapeutic agents:

  • Antidepressants
  • Atazanavir
  • Atorvastatin
  • Bupropion
  • Carbamazepine
  • Clarithromycin
  • Cyclosporine
  • Gentamicin
  • Indinavir
  • Ketoconazole
  • Lamivudine
  • Lopinavir

Possible side effects

The combination of these therapeutic agents may cause the following side effects:

  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Indigestion
  • Darkening of the skin
  • Pale skin
  • Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
  • Confusion
  • Abnormally happy or nervous mood
  • Joint/back pain

Some side effects can be serious. If you detect any of the severe negative reactions, call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment.

The drug may also cause negative reactions as a result of an overdose. Symptoms of overdose may include the following:

  • Dizziness
  • Nervousness
  • Confusion
  • Drowsiness
  • Hallucinations
  • Neutropenia, anemia, hypophosphatemia
  • Hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, lactic acidosis
  • Nightmares
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior
  • Euphoria
  • Seizures, amnesia, ataxia, agitation, tremor
  • Muscle weakness, asthenia, myopathy, etc.

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